Subordinator is used to introduce dependent clauses, which are joined with independent clause to form complex sentence. In other words, a subordinator (subordinating conjunction) is the first word in a dependent clause.
- 1. To Tell Time
– After : He studies English after he finishes watching television.
– As : They were chatting as they crossed the street.
– As soon as : My writing improves as soon as I study writing I.
– Before : Before you go to campus, you have to study the material.
– Since : It has been more than three years since I became a lecturer.
– Until : We should read the book until we understand the material.
– When : When I see you smile, I can change the world.
– Whenever : Whenever I don’t sleep well, I feel sick the next day.
– While : I was studying while my friends were playing games.
- 2. To Give a Reason
– Because : Because I love you, I will give you everything.
– Since : He buys the book since he loves it very much.
– As : I don’t have a Blackberry as I don’t have any money to buy it.
- 3. To Tell Where
– Where : Dongo can never remember where he saves the files.
– Wherever : I will follow you wherever you go.
- 4. To Make a Contrast
– Although : Although Gorgeous is beautiful, she is not conceited.
– Even though : Made came to campus even though it rained cats and dogs.
– Though : I study writing very hard though I don’t like it.
– While : My daughter likes classical music while I prefer rock.
– Whereas : He likes reading novel whereas I like comic.
Subordinating words for adjective clauses are called relative pronouns (who, whom, and that (informal) – to refer to people; which and that – to refer to animals or things; when – to refer to a time)
- B. Coordinating Conjunction
Coordinating conjunction is usually used to join two or more independent clauses in compound sentence. There are seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, yet, or, nor, for and so. Punctuate the sentence by putting a comma (,) before the coordinating conjunction.
- 1. And shows augmentation/addition or connects equal similar ideas.
– My father likes to fish, and he often goes fishing with me.
– Budi admires Steve Vai, and he has got his giant poster.
- 2. But connects equal different ideas.
– John likes to catch fish, but he doesn’t like to eat them.
– Tina likes reading, but her sister likes watching TV.
- 3. Yet connects equal contrasting ideas.
– Gandhi is vegetarian, yet he eats chicken.
– I have a guitar, yet I cannot play it.
- 4. For connects a reason to result.
– The students didn’t pass the exam, for they didn’t study last night.
– I could understand the lecture, for it was simply and clearly explained.
- 5. So connects a result to reason.
– Dono is naughty boy, so I don’t like him.
– The lecture was simply and clearly explained, so I could understand it.
- 6. Or connects two equal choices.
– They can register online, or they can register by mail.
– You can call me, or you can text me.
- 7. Nor connects two negative ideas.
– She does not eat meat, nor does she drink milk.
– I cannot speak Japanese, nor can I write it.
NOTE: When coordinating conjunction joins two clauses, the conjunction is normally preceded by comma.
Independent Clause, + Coordinating Conjunction + Independent Clause
- C. Sentence Connector
The independent clauses of compound sentence can also be joined by a sentence connector such as furthermore, in addition, besides, moreover, however, nevertheless, otherwise, consequently, therefore, thus and hence. Sentence connectors are used frequently in formal writing to connect long clauses. Punctuate the sentence by placing a semicolon (;) after the first clause and a comma (,) after the sentence connector.
- Furthermore, besides, in addition and moreover – to add similar idea.
– Television is entertaining; furthermore, it is sometimes instructive.
– Anton is a good boy; besides, he always tries to help other people.
– I have done my home work; in addition, I have already handed it.
– Jono is kind; moreover, he is generous.
- However, nevertheless and on the other hand – to add an opposite idea.
– Andi moved to Denpasar; however, his parent stayed in his home town.
– Mr. McBuddy loves surfing; nevertheless, he doesn’t have surfboard.
– The students come to campus on time; on the other hand, the lecturer is late.
- Therefore, thus, as a result and consequently show result.
– I dislike eating bread; therefore, I never eat it.
– He studied very hard; thus, he passed the examination.
– He works really hard every day; as a result, he now enjoys it.
– The road was wet and slippery; consequently, there were many accidents.
NOTE: Independent clause; + sentence connector, + independent clause.